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Ovarian cancer is the malignant growth of cells that form a tumor in the ovaries, the pair of female reproductive glands in which eggs are formed, located one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries contain three cell types: epithelial cells, germ cells, and stromal cells. Ovarian cancer can develop from each of these cell types.

Epithelial ovarian cancer: most ovarian cancers, (86-90%), are epithelial ovarian cancer, originating in the epithelial cells that cover the surface of the ovary and the fallopian tube.

Germ cell & Stromal cell tumors: less commonly, ovarian cancer develops from the egg-producing cells of the ovaries, called germ cell tumors, or from the connective tissues that hold the ovaries together and make hormones, called stromal tumors.

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Treatment for Ovarian Cancer: the treatment for ovarian cancer is based on the stage of the disease and the extent that the malignancy has spread. The standard treatment for ovarian cancer consists of debulking surgery followed by six rounds of chemotherapy.

The chemotherapy treatments may be given IV, or IP (Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy places the medicine directly into the peritoneal area through a surgically implanted port and catheter).

Other drugs, including angiogenesis inhibitors and targeted therapies, may be recommended either in conjunction with chemotherapy or as single agents. Hormone therapy, usually for stromal tumors may include luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists, aromatase inhibitors, and tamoxifen.

Stage I: cancer is confined to one or both ovaries. Treatment for women with stage I cancer have a total abdominal hysterectomy, removal of both ovaries and fallopian tubes, and biopsies of lymph nodes. If the tumor is high grade, surgery may be followed by chemotherapy.

Stage II: cancer is present in one or both of the ovaries and has spread to the uterus and/or the fallopian tubes or to other sites in the pelvis. Treatment is usually a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy (removal of the ovary and fallopian tubes) with tumor debulking followed by combination chemotherapy with or without radiation

Stage III: cancer is present in one or both of the ovaries and has spread to lymph nodes or other sites outside of the pelvis but is still within the abdominal cavity, such as the surface of the intestine or liver. Treatment is the same for stage II, including surgery and combination chemotherapy.

Stage IV: cancer is present in one or both ovaries and has spread beyond the abdomen or has spread to the liver. Treatment is usually surgery, followed by chemotherapy.

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National Cancer Institute Clinical Trials for Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian Cancer National Alliance

National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

Cancer Research Institute Immunotherapy Trials for Ovarian Cancer

American Cancer Society Clinical Trials

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American Cancer Society Ovarian Cancer Resources

National Cancer Institute Ovarian Cancer Resources

National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

Ovarian Cancer Research Fund

National Comprehensive Cancer Network

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PARP Inhibitor Research in Ovarian Cancer
March 13, 2018

Drug That “Shows Promise” Against Rare Ovarian Cancer May Lead to Mesothelioma Therapy
March, 2018

ACCR: Oral Olaparib with chemotherapy beneficial for ovarian cancer
Health Day News
September 15, 2014

Team Finds Ovarian Cancer Oncogene in Junk DNA
Bioscience Technology
September 10, 2014

Improved Survival of Ovarian Cancer Patients Receiving Treatment Guided by Comprehensive Tumor Profiling
Market Watch
September 11, 2014

A Blood Test May Improve Ovarian Cancer Treatment
The Health Site
September 6, 2014

Fast Track Designation For Motolimod in Immunotherapy In Ovarian Cancer
Science 2.0
September 8, 2014

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National Ovarian Cancer Coalition

Ovarian Cancer National Alliance

Ovarian Cancer Support Group-Daily Strength

Cancer Care Support Groups

Gilda’s Club New York City

Ovarian Cancer Support Groups Resource

Imerman Angels (to connect directly with another survivor or caregiver through an organization that creates personal, one-on-one connections among patients, survivors, and caregivers)

Fighting Chance (free counseling service for cancer patients and caregivers).

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